Home Home > GIT Browse
summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/mm/gup.c
blob: 576c4df588823ab948c4a5d0dd12b6d54b94b430 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/err.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>

#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/memremap.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/rmap.h>
#include <linux/swap.h>
#include <linux/swapops.h>

#include <linux/sched/signal.h>
#include <linux/rwsem.h>
#include <linux/hugetlb.h>

#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
#include <asm/pgtable.h>
#include <asm/tlbflush.h>

#include "internal.h"

static struct page *no_page_table(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned int flags)
{
	/*
	 * When core dumping an enormous anonymous area that nobody
	 * has touched so far, we don't want to allocate unnecessary pages or
	 * page tables.  Return error instead of NULL to skip handle_mm_fault,
	 * then get_dump_page() will return NULL to leave a hole in the dump.
	 * But we can only make this optimization where a hole would surely
	 * be zero-filled if handle_mm_fault() actually did handle it.
	 */
	if ((flags & FOLL_DUMP) && (!vma->vm_ops || !vma->vm_ops->fault))
		return ERR_PTR(-EFAULT);
	return NULL;
}

static int follow_pfn_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
		pte_t *pte, unsigned int flags)
{
	/* No page to get reference */
	if (flags & FOLL_GET)
		return -EFAULT;

	if (flags & FOLL_TOUCH) {
		pte_t entry = *pte;

		if (flags & FOLL_WRITE)
			entry = pte_mkdirty(entry);
		entry = pte_mkyoung(entry);

		if (!pte_same(*pte, entry)) {
			set_pte_at(vma->vm_mm, address, pte, entry);
			update_mmu_cache(vma, address, pte);
		}
	}

	/* Proper page table entry exists, but no corresponding struct page */
	return -EEXIST;
}

/*
 * FOLL_FORCE can write to even unwritable pte's, but only
 * after we've gone through a COW cycle and they are dirty.
 */
static inline bool can_follow_write_pte(pte_t pte, unsigned int flags)
{
	return pte_write(pte) ||
		((flags & FOLL_FORCE) && (flags & FOLL_COW) && pte_dirty(pte));
}

static struct page *follow_page_pte(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned long address, pmd_t *pmd, unsigned int flags)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
	struct dev_pagemap *pgmap = NULL;
	struct page *page;
	spinlock_t *ptl;
	pte_t *ptep, pte;

retry:
	if (unlikely(pmd_bad(*pmd)))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);

	ptep = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
	pte = *ptep;
	if (!pte_present(pte)) {
		swp_entry_t entry;
		/*
		 * KSM's break_ksm() relies upon recognizing a ksm page
		 * even while it is being migrated, so for that case we
		 * need migration_entry_wait().
		 */
		if (likely(!(flags & FOLL_MIGRATION)))
			goto no_page;
		if (pte_none(pte))
			goto no_page;
		entry = pte_to_swp_entry(pte);
		if (!is_migration_entry(entry))
			goto no_page;
		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
		migration_entry_wait(mm, pmd, address);
		goto retry;
	}
	if ((flags & FOLL_NUMA) && pte_protnone(pte))
		goto no_page;
	if ((flags & FOLL_WRITE) && !can_follow_write_pte(pte, flags)) {
		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
		return NULL;
	}

	page = vm_normal_page(vma, address, pte);
	if (!page && pte_devmap(pte) && (flags & FOLL_GET)) {
		/*
		 * Only return device mapping pages in the FOLL_GET case since
		 * they are only valid while holding the pgmap reference.
		 */
		pgmap = get_dev_pagemap(pte_pfn(pte), NULL);
		if (pgmap)
			page = pte_page(pte);
		else
			goto no_page;
	} else if (unlikely(!page)) {
		if (flags & FOLL_DUMP) {
			/* Avoid special (like zero) pages in core dumps */
			page = ERR_PTR(-EFAULT);
			goto out;
		}

		if (is_zero_pfn(pte_pfn(pte))) {
			page = pte_page(pte);
		} else {
			int ret;

			ret = follow_pfn_pte(vma, address, ptep, flags);
			page = ERR_PTR(ret);
			goto out;
		}
	}

	if (flags & FOLL_SPLIT && PageTransCompound(page)) {
		int ret;
		get_page(page);
		pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
		lock_page(page);
		ret = split_huge_page(page);
		unlock_page(page);
		put_page(page);
		if (ret)
			return ERR_PTR(ret);
		goto retry;
	}

	if (flags & FOLL_GET) {
		get_page(page);

		/* drop the pgmap reference now that we hold the page */
		if (pgmap) {
			put_dev_pagemap(pgmap);
			pgmap = NULL;
		}
	}
	if (flags & FOLL_TOUCH) {
		if ((flags & FOLL_WRITE) &&
		    !pte_dirty(pte) && !PageDirty(page))
			set_page_dirty(page);
		/*
		 * pte_mkyoung() would be more correct here, but atomic care
		 * is needed to avoid losing the dirty bit: it is easier to use
		 * mark_page_accessed().
		 */
		mark_page_accessed(page);
	}
	if ((flags & FOLL_MLOCK) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED)) {
		/* Do not mlock pte-mapped THP */
		if (PageTransCompound(page))
			goto out;

		/*
		 * The preliminary mapping check is mainly to avoid the
		 * pointless overhead of lock_page on the ZERO_PAGE
		 * which might bounce very badly if there is contention.
		 *
		 * If the page is already locked, we don't need to
		 * handle it now - vmscan will handle it later if and
		 * when it attempts to reclaim the page.
		 */
		if (page->mapping && trylock_page(page)) {
			lru_add_drain();  /* push cached pages to LRU */
			/*
			 * Because we lock page here, and migration is
			 * blocked by the pte's page reference, and we
			 * know the page is still mapped, we don't even
			 * need to check for file-cache page truncation.
			 */
			mlock_vma_page(page);
			unlock_page(page);
		}
	}
out:
	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
	return page;
no_page:
	pte_unmap_unlock(ptep, ptl);
	if (!pte_none(pte))
		return NULL;
	return no_page_table(vma, flags);
}

/**
 * follow_page_mask - look up a page descriptor from a user-virtual address
 * @vma: vm_area_struct mapping @address
 * @address: virtual address to look up
 * @flags: flags modifying lookup behaviour
 * @page_mask: on output, *page_mask is set according to the size of the page
 *
 * @flags can have FOLL_ flags set, defined in <linux/mm.h>
 *
 * Returns the mapped (struct page *), %NULL if no mapping exists, or
 * an error pointer if there is a mapping to something not represented
 * by a page descriptor (see also vm_normal_page()).
 */
struct page *follow_page_mask(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			      unsigned long address, unsigned int flags,
			      unsigned int *page_mask)
{
	pgd_t *pgd;
	p4d_t *p4d;
	pud_t *pud;
	pmd_t *pmd;
	spinlock_t *ptl;
	struct page *page;
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;

	*page_mask = 0;

	page = follow_huge_addr(mm, address, flags & FOLL_WRITE);
	if (!IS_ERR(page)) {
		BUG_ON(flags & FOLL_GET);
		return page;
	}

	pgd = pgd_offset(mm, address);
	if (pgd_none(*pgd) || unlikely(pgd_bad(*pgd)))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	p4d = p4d_offset(pgd, address);
	if (p4d_none(*p4d))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	BUILD_BUG_ON(p4d_huge(*p4d));
	if (unlikely(p4d_bad(*p4d)))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	pud = pud_offset(p4d, address);
	if (pud_none(*pud))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	if (pud_huge(*pud) && vma->vm_flags & VM_HUGETLB) {
		page = follow_huge_pud(mm, address, pud, flags);
		if (page)
			return page;
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	}
	if (pud_devmap(*pud)) {
		ptl = pud_lock(mm, pud);
		page = follow_devmap_pud(vma, address, pud, flags);
		spin_unlock(ptl);
		if (page)
			return page;
	}
	if (unlikely(pud_bad(*pud)))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);

	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, address);
	if (pmd_none(*pmd))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	if (pmd_huge(*pmd) && vma->vm_flags & VM_HUGETLB) {
		page = follow_huge_pmd(mm, address, pmd, flags);
		if (page)
			return page;
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);
	}
	if (pmd_devmap(*pmd)) {
		ptl = pmd_lock(mm, pmd);
		page = follow_devmap_pmd(vma, address, pmd, flags);
		spin_unlock(ptl);
		if (page)
			return page;
	}
	if (likely(!pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)))
		return follow_page_pte(vma, address, pmd, flags);

	if ((flags & FOLL_NUMA) && pmd_protnone(*pmd))
		return no_page_table(vma, flags);

	ptl = pmd_lock(mm, pmd);
	if (unlikely(!pmd_trans_huge(*pmd))) {
		spin_unlock(ptl);
		return follow_page_pte(vma, address, pmd, flags);
	}
	if (flags & FOLL_SPLIT) {
		int ret;
		page = pmd_page(*pmd);
		if (is_huge_zero_page(page)) {
			spin_unlock(ptl);
			ret = 0;
			split_huge_pmd(vma, pmd, address);
			if (pmd_trans_unstable(pmd))
				ret = -EBUSY;
		} else {
			get_page(page);
			spin_unlock(ptl);
			lock_page(page);
			ret = split_huge_page(page);
			unlock_page(page);
			put_page(page);
			if (pmd_none(*pmd))
				return no_page_table(vma, flags);
		}

		return ret ? ERR_PTR(ret) :
			follow_page_pte(vma, address, pmd, flags);
	}

	page = follow_trans_huge_pmd(vma, address, pmd, flags);
	spin_unlock(ptl);
	*page_mask = HPAGE_PMD_NR - 1;
	return page;
}

static int get_gate_page(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long address,
		unsigned int gup_flags, struct vm_area_struct **vma,
		struct page **page)
{
	pgd_t *pgd;
	p4d_t *p4d;
	pud_t *pud;
	pmd_t *pmd;
	pte_t *pte;
	int ret = -EFAULT;

	/* user gate pages are read-only */
	if (gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE)
		return -EFAULT;
	if (address > TASK_SIZE)
		pgd = pgd_offset_k(address);
	else
		pgd = pgd_offset_gate(mm, address);
	BUG_ON(pgd_none(*pgd));
	p4d = p4d_offset(pgd, address);
	BUG_ON(p4d_none(*p4d));
	pud = pud_offset(p4d, address);
	BUG_ON(pud_none(*pud));
	pmd = pmd_offset(pud, address);
	if (pmd_none(*pmd))
		return -EFAULT;
	VM_BUG_ON(pmd_trans_huge(*pmd));
	pte = pte_offset_map(pmd, address);
	if (pte_none(*pte))
		goto unmap;
	*vma = get_gate_vma(mm);
	if (!page)
		goto out;
	*page = vm_normal_page(*vma, address, *pte);
	if (!*page) {
		if ((gup_flags & FOLL_DUMP) || !is_zero_pfn(pte_pfn(*pte)))
			goto unmap;
		*page = pte_page(*pte);
	}
	get_page(*page);
out:
	ret = 0;
unmap:
	pte_unmap(pte);
	return ret;
}

/*
 * mmap_sem must be held on entry.  If @nonblocking != NULL and
 * *@flags does not include FOLL_NOWAIT, the mmap_sem may be released.
 * If it is, *@nonblocking will be set to 0 and -EBUSY returned.
 */
static int faultin_page(struct task_struct *tsk, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned long address, unsigned int *flags, int *nonblocking)
{
	unsigned int fault_flags = 0;
	int ret;

	/* mlock all present pages, but do not fault in new pages */
	if ((*flags & (FOLL_POPULATE | FOLL_MLOCK)) == FOLL_MLOCK)
		return -ENOENT;
	if (*flags & FOLL_WRITE)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_WRITE;
	if (*flags & FOLL_REMOTE)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_REMOTE;
	if (nonblocking)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;
	if (*flags & FOLL_NOWAIT)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY | FAULT_FLAG_RETRY_NOWAIT;
	if (*flags & FOLL_TRIED) {
		VM_WARN_ON_ONCE(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY);
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_TRIED;
	}

	ret = handle_mm_fault(vma, address, fault_flags);
	if (ret & VM_FAULT_ERROR) {
		int err = vm_fault_to_errno(ret, *flags);

		if (err)
			return err;
		BUG();
	}

	if (tsk) {
		if (ret & VM_FAULT_MAJOR)
			tsk->maj_flt++;
		else
			tsk->min_flt++;
	}

	if (ret & VM_FAULT_RETRY) {
		if (nonblocking)
			*nonblocking = 0;
		return -EBUSY;
	}

	/*
	 * The VM_FAULT_WRITE bit tells us that do_wp_page has broken COW when
	 * necessary, even if maybe_mkwrite decided not to set pte_write. We
	 * can thus safely do subsequent page lookups as if they were reads.
	 * But only do so when looping for pte_write is futile: in some cases
	 * userspace may also be wanting to write to the gotten user page,
	 * which a read fault here might prevent (a readonly page might get
	 * reCOWed by userspace write).
	 */
	if ((ret & VM_FAULT_WRITE) && !(vma->vm_flags & VM_WRITE))
	        *flags |= FOLL_COW;
	return 0;
}

static int check_vma_flags(struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long gup_flags)
{
	vm_flags_t vm_flags = vma->vm_flags;
	int write = (gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE);
	int foreign = (gup_flags & FOLL_REMOTE);

	if (vm_flags & (VM_IO | VM_PFNMAP))
		return -EFAULT;

	if (write) {
		if (!(vm_flags & VM_WRITE)) {
			if (!(gup_flags & FOLL_FORCE))
				return -EFAULT;
			/*
			 * We used to let the write,force case do COW in a
			 * VM_MAYWRITE VM_SHARED !VM_WRITE vma, so ptrace could
			 * set a breakpoint in a read-only mapping of an
			 * executable, without corrupting the file (yet only
			 * when that file had been opened for writing!).
			 * Anon pages in shared mappings are surprising: now
			 * just reject it.
			 */
			if (!is_cow_mapping(vm_flags))
				return -EFAULT;
		}
	} else if (!(vm_flags & VM_READ)) {
		if (!(gup_flags & FOLL_FORCE))
			return -EFAULT;
		/*
		 * Is there actually any vma we can reach here which does not
		 * have VM_MAYREAD set?
		 */
		if (!(vm_flags & VM_MAYREAD))
			return -EFAULT;
	}
	/*
	 * gups are always data accesses, not instruction
	 * fetches, so execute=false here
	 */
	if (!arch_vma_access_permitted(vma, write, false, foreign))
		return -EFAULT;
	return 0;
}

/**
 * __get_user_pages() - pin user pages in memory
 * @tsk:	task_struct of target task
 * @mm:		mm_struct of target mm
 * @start:	starting user address
 * @nr_pages:	number of pages from start to pin
 * @gup_flags:	flags modifying pin behaviour
 * @pages:	array that receives pointers to the pages pinned.
 *		Should be at least nr_pages long. Or NULL, if caller
 *		only intends to ensure the pages are faulted in.
 * @vmas:	array of pointers to vmas corresponding to each page.
 *		Or NULL if the caller does not require them.
 * @nonblocking: whether waiting for disk IO or mmap_sem contention
 *
 * Returns number of pages pinned. This may be fewer than the number
 * requested. If nr_pages is 0 or negative, returns 0. If no pages
 * were pinned, returns -errno. Each page returned must be released
 * with a put_page() call when it is finished with. vmas will only
 * remain valid while mmap_sem is held.
 *
 * Must be called with mmap_sem held.  It may be released.  See below.
 *
 * __get_user_pages walks a process's page tables and takes a reference to
 * each struct page that each user address corresponds to at a given
 * instant. That is, it takes the page that would be accessed if a user
 * thread accesses the given user virtual address at that instant.
 *
 * This does not guarantee that the page exists in the user mappings when
 * __get_user_pages returns, and there may even be a completely different
 * page there in some cases (eg. if mmapped pagecache has been invalidated
 * and subsequently re faulted). However it does guarantee that the page
 * won't be freed completely. And mostly callers simply care that the page
 * contains data that was valid *at some point in time*. Typically, an IO
 * or similar operation cannot guarantee anything stronger anyway because
 * locks can't be held over the syscall boundary.
 *
 * If @gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE == 0, the page must not be written to. If
 * the page is written to, set_page_dirty (or set_page_dirty_lock, as
 * appropriate) must be called after the page is finished with, and
 * before put_page is called.
 *
 * If @nonblocking != NULL, __get_user_pages will not wait for disk IO
 * or mmap_sem contention, and if waiting is needed to pin all pages,
 * *@nonblocking will be set to 0.  Further, if @gup_flags does not
 * include FOLL_NOWAIT, the mmap_sem will be released via up_read() in
 * this case.
 *
 * A caller using such a combination of @nonblocking and @gup_flags
 * must therefore hold the mmap_sem for reading only, and recognize
 * when it's been released.  Otherwise, it must be held for either
 * reading or writing and will not be released.
 *
 * In most cases, get_user_pages or get_user_pages_fast should be used
 * instead of __get_user_pages. __get_user_pages should be used only if
 * you need some special @gup_flags.
 */
static long __get_user_pages(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
		unsigned int gup_flags, struct page **pages,
		struct vm_area_struct **vmas, int *nonblocking)
{
	long i = 0;
	unsigned int page_mask;
	struct vm_area_struct *vma = NULL;

	if (!nr_pages)
		return 0;

	VM_BUG_ON(!!pages != !!(gup_flags & FOLL_GET));

	/*
	 * If FOLL_FORCE is set then do not force a full fault as the hinting
	 * fault information is unrelated to the reference behaviour of a task
	 * using the address space
	 */
	if (!(gup_flags & FOLL_FORCE))
		gup_flags |= FOLL_NUMA;

	do {
		struct page *page;
		unsigned int foll_flags = gup_flags;
		unsigned int page_increm;

		/* first iteration or cross vma bound */
		if (!vma || start >= vma->vm_end) {
			vma = find_extend_vma(mm, start);
			if (!vma && in_gate_area(mm, start)) {
				int ret;
				ret = get_gate_page(mm, start & PAGE_MASK,
						gup_flags, &vma,
						pages ? &pages[i] : NULL);
				if (ret)
					return i ? : ret;
				page_mask = 0;
				goto next_page;
			}

			if (!vma || check_vma_flags(vma, gup_flags))
				return i ? : -EFAULT;
			if (is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma)) {
				i = follow_hugetlb_page(mm, vma, pages, vmas,
						&start, &nr_pages, i,
						gup_flags, nonblocking);
				continue;
			}
		}
retry:
		/*
		 * If we have a pending SIGKILL, don't keep faulting pages and
		 * potentially allocating memory.
		 */
		if (unlikely(fatal_signal_pending(current)))
			return i ? i : -ERESTARTSYS;
		cond_resched();
		page = follow_page_mask(vma, start, foll_flags, &page_mask);
		if (!page) {
			int ret;
			ret = faultin_page(tsk, vma, start, &foll_flags,
					nonblocking);
			switch (ret) {
			case 0:
				goto retry;
			case -EFAULT:
			case -ENOMEM:
			case -EHWPOISON:
				return i ? i : ret;
			case -EBUSY:
				return i;
			case -ENOENT:
				goto next_page;
			}
			BUG();
		} else if (PTR_ERR(page) == -EEXIST) {
			/*
			 * Proper page table entry exists, but no corresponding
			 * struct page.
			 */
			goto next_page;
		} else if (IS_ERR(page)) {
			return i ? i : PTR_ERR(page);
		}
		if (pages) {
			pages[i] = page;
			flush_anon_page(vma, page, start);
			flush_dcache_page(page);
			page_mask = 0;
		}
next_page:
		if (vmas) {
			vmas[i] = vma;
			page_mask = 0;
		}
		page_increm = 1 + (~(start >> PAGE_SHIFT) & page_mask);
		if (page_increm > nr_pages)
			page_increm = nr_pages;
		i += page_increm;
		start += page_increm * PAGE_SIZE;
		nr_pages -= page_increm;
	} while (nr_pages);
	return i;
}

static bool vma_permits_fault(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
			      unsigned int fault_flags)
{
	bool write   = !!(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE);
	bool foreign = !!(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_REMOTE);
	vm_flags_t vm_flags = write ? VM_WRITE : VM_READ;

	if (!(vm_flags & vma->vm_flags))
		return false;

	/*
	 * The architecture might have a hardware protection
	 * mechanism other than read/write that can deny access.
	 *
	 * gup always represents data access, not instruction
	 * fetches, so execute=false here:
	 */
	if (!arch_vma_access_permitted(vma, write, false, foreign))
		return false;

	return true;
}

/*
 * fixup_user_fault() - manually resolve a user page fault
 * @tsk:	the task_struct to use for page fault accounting, or
 *		NULL if faults are not to be recorded.
 * @mm:		mm_struct of target mm
 * @address:	user address
 * @fault_flags:flags to pass down to handle_mm_fault()
 * @unlocked:	did we unlock the mmap_sem while retrying, maybe NULL if caller
 *		does not allow retry
 *
 * This is meant to be called in the specific scenario where for locking reasons
 * we try to access user memory in atomic context (within a pagefault_disable()
 * section), this returns -EFAULT, and we want to resolve the user fault before
 * trying again.
 *
 * Typically this is meant to be used by the futex code.
 *
 * The main difference with get_user_pages() is that this function will
 * unconditionally call handle_mm_fault() which will in turn perform all the
 * necessary SW fixup of the dirty and young bits in the PTE, while
 * get_user_pages() only guarantees to update these in the struct page.
 *
 * This is important for some architectures where those bits also gate the
 * access permission to the page because they are maintained in software.  On
 * such architectures, gup() will not be enough to make a subsequent access
 * succeed.
 *
 * This function will not return with an unlocked mmap_sem. So it has not the
 * same semantics wrt the @mm->mmap_sem as does filemap_fault().
 */
int fixup_user_fault(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
		     unsigned long address, unsigned int fault_flags,
		     bool *unlocked)
{
	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
	int ret, major = 0;

	if (unlocked)
		fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;

retry:
	vma = find_extend_vma(mm, address);
	if (!vma || address < vma->vm_start)
		return -EFAULT;

	if (!vma_permits_fault(vma, fault_flags))
		return -EFAULT;

	ret = handle_mm_fault(vma, address, fault_flags);
	major |= ret & VM_FAULT_MAJOR;
	if (ret & VM_FAULT_ERROR) {
		int err = vm_fault_to_errno(ret, 0);

		if (err)
			return err;
		BUG();
	}

	if (ret & VM_FAULT_RETRY) {
		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
		if (!(fault_flags & FAULT_FLAG_TRIED)) {
			*unlocked = true;
			fault_flags &= ~FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;
			fault_flags |= FAULT_FLAG_TRIED;
			goto retry;
		}
	}

	if (tsk) {
		if (major)
			tsk->maj_flt++;
		else
			tsk->min_flt++;
	}
	return 0;
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(fixup_user_fault);

static __always_inline long __get_user_pages_locked(struct task_struct *tsk,
						struct mm_struct *mm,
						unsigned long start,
						unsigned long nr_pages,
						struct page **pages,
						struct vm_area_struct **vmas,
						int *locked, bool notify_drop,
						unsigned int flags)
{
	long ret, pages_done;
	bool lock_dropped;

	if (locked) {
		/* if VM_FAULT_RETRY can be returned, vmas become invalid */
		BUG_ON(vmas);
		/* check caller initialized locked */
		BUG_ON(*locked != 1);
	}

	if (pages)
		flags |= FOLL_GET;

	pages_done = 0;
	lock_dropped = false;
	for (;;) {
		ret = __get_user_pages(tsk, mm, start, nr_pages, flags, pages,
				       vmas, locked);
		if (!locked)
			/* VM_FAULT_RETRY couldn't trigger, bypass */
			return ret;

		/* VM_FAULT_RETRY cannot return errors */
		if (!*locked) {
			BUG_ON(ret < 0);
			BUG_ON(ret >= nr_pages);
		}

		if (!pages)
			/* If it's a prefault don't insist harder */
			return ret;

		if (ret > 0) {
			nr_pages -= ret;
			pages_done += ret;
			if (!nr_pages)
				break;
		}
		if (*locked) {
			/* VM_FAULT_RETRY didn't trigger */
			if (!pages_done)
				pages_done = ret;
			break;
		}
		/* VM_FAULT_RETRY triggered, so seek to the faulting offset */
		pages += ret;
		start += ret << PAGE_SHIFT;

		/*
		 * Repeat on the address that fired VM_FAULT_RETRY
		 * without FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY but with
		 * FAULT_FLAG_TRIED.
		 */
		*locked = 1;
		lock_dropped = true;
		down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
		ret = __get_user_pages(tsk, mm, start, 1, flags | FOLL_TRIED,
				       pages, NULL, NULL);
		if (ret != 1) {
			BUG_ON(ret > 1);
			if (!pages_done)
				pages_done = ret;
			break;
		}
		nr_pages--;
		pages_done++;
		if (!nr_pages)
			break;
		pages++;
		start += PAGE_SIZE;
	}
	if (notify_drop && lock_dropped && *locked) {
		/*
		 * We must let the caller know we temporarily dropped the lock
		 * and so the critical section protected by it was lost.
		 */
		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
		*locked = 0;
	}
	return pages_done;
}

/*
 * We can leverage the VM_FAULT_RETRY functionality in the page fault
 * paths better by using either get_user_pages_locked() or
 * get_user_pages_unlocked().
 *
 * get_user_pages_locked() is suitable to replace the form:
 *
 *      down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *      do_something()
 *      get_user_pages(tsk, mm, ..., pages, NULL);
 *      up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *
 *  to:
 *
 *      int locked = 1;
 *      down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *      do_something()
 *      get_user_pages_locked(tsk, mm, ..., pages, &locked);
 *      if (locked)
 *          up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 */
long get_user_pages_locked(unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
			   unsigned int gup_flags, struct page **pages,
			   int *locked)
{
	return __get_user_pages_locked(current, current->mm, start, nr_pages,
				       pages, NULL, locked, true,
				       gup_flags | FOLL_TOUCH);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_locked);

/*
 * Same as get_user_pages_unlocked(...., FOLL_TOUCH) but it allows for
 * tsk, mm to be specified.
 *
 * NOTE: here FOLL_TOUCH is not set implicitly and must be set by the
 * caller if required (just like with __get_user_pages). "FOLL_GET"
 * is set implicitly if "pages" is non-NULL.
 */
static __always_inline long __get_user_pages_unlocked(struct task_struct *tsk,
		struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long start,
		unsigned long nr_pages, struct page **pages,
		unsigned int gup_flags)
{
	long ret;
	int locked = 1;

	down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
	ret = __get_user_pages_locked(tsk, mm, start, nr_pages, pages, NULL,
				      &locked, false, gup_flags);
	if (locked)
		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
	return ret;
}

/*
 * get_user_pages_unlocked() is suitable to replace the form:
 *
 *      down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *      get_user_pages(tsk, mm, ..., pages, NULL);
 *      up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
 *
 *  with:
 *
 *      get_user_pages_unlocked(tsk, mm, ..., pages);
 *
 * It is functionally equivalent to get_user_pages_fast so
 * get_user_pages_fast should be used instead if specific gup_flags
 * (e.g. FOLL_FORCE) are not required.
 */
long get_user_pages_unlocked(unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
			     struct page **pages, unsigned int gup_flags)
{
	return __get_user_pages_unlocked(current, current->mm, start, nr_pages,
					 pages, gup_flags | FOLL_TOUCH);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_unlocked);

/*
 * get_user_pages_remote() - pin user pages in memory
 * @tsk:	the task_struct to use for page fault accounting, or
 *		NULL if faults are not to be recorded.
 * @mm:		mm_struct of target mm
 * @start:	starting user address
 * @nr_pages:	number of pages from start to pin
 * @gup_flags:	flags modifying lookup behaviour
 * @pages:	array that receives pointers to the pages pinned.
 *		Should be at least nr_pages long. Or NULL, if caller
 *		only intends to ensure the pages are faulted in.
 * @vmas:	array of pointers to vmas corresponding to each page.
 *		Or NULL if the caller does not require them.
 * @locked:	pointer to lock flag indicating whether lock is held and
 *		subsequently whether VM_FAULT_RETRY functionality can be
 *		utilised. Lock must initially be held.
 *
 * Returns number of pages pinned. This may be fewer than the number
 * requested. If nr_pages is 0 or negative, returns 0. If no pages
 * were pinned, returns -errno. Each page returned must be released
 * with a put_page() call when it is finished with. vmas will only
 * remain valid while mmap_sem is held.
 *
 * Must be called with mmap_sem held for read or write.
 *
 * get_user_pages walks a process's page tables and takes a reference to
 * each struct page that each user address corresponds to at a given
 * instant. That is, it takes the page that would be accessed if a user
 * thread accesses the given user virtual address at that instant.
 *
 * This does not guarantee that the page exists in the user mappings when
 * get_user_pages returns, and there may even be a completely different
 * page there in some cases (eg. if mmapped pagecache has been invalidated
 * and subsequently re faulted). However it does guarantee that the page
 * won't be freed completely. And mostly callers simply care that the page
 * contains data that was valid *at some point in time*. Typically, an IO
 * or similar operation cannot guarantee anything stronger anyway because
 * locks can't be held over the syscall boundary.
 *
 * If gup_flags & FOLL_WRITE == 0, the page must not be written to. If the page
 * is written to, set_page_dirty (or set_page_dirty_lock, as appropriate) must
 * be called after the page is finished with, and before put_page is called.
 *
 * get_user_pages is typically used for fewer-copy IO operations, to get a
 * handle on the memory by some means other than accesses via the user virtual
 * addresses. The pages may be submitted for DMA to devices or accessed via
 * their kernel linear mapping (via the kmap APIs). Care should be taken to
 * use the correct cache flushing APIs.
 *
 * See also get_user_pages_fast, for performance critical applications.
 *
 * get_user_pages should be phased out in favor of
 * get_user_pages_locked|unlocked or get_user_pages_fast. Nothing
 * should use get_user_pages because it cannot pass
 * FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY to handle_mm_fault.
 */
long get_user_pages_remote(struct task_struct *tsk, struct mm_struct *mm,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
		unsigned int gup_flags, struct page **pages,
		struct vm_area_struct **vmas, int *locked)
{
	return __get_user_pages_locked(tsk, mm, start, nr_pages, pages, vmas,
				       locked, true,
				       gup_flags | FOLL_TOUCH | FOLL_REMOTE);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages_remote);

/*
 * This is the same as get_user_pages_remote(), just with a
 * less-flexible calling convention where we assume that the task
 * and mm being operated on are the current task's and don't allow
 * passing of a locked parameter.  We also obviously don't pass
 * FOLL_REMOTE in here.
 */
long get_user_pages(unsigned long start, unsigned long nr_pages,
		unsigned int gup_flags, struct page **pages,
		struct vm_area_struct **vmas)
{
	return __get_user_pages_locked(current, current->mm, start, nr_pages,
				       pages, vmas, NULL, false,
				       gup_flags | FOLL_TOUCH);
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(get_user_pages);

/**
 * populate_vma_page_range() -  populate a range of pages in the vma.
 * @vma:   target vma
 * @start: start address
 * @end:   end address
 * @nonblocking:
 *
 * This takes care of mlocking the pages too if VM_LOCKED is set.
 *
 * return 0 on success, negative error code on error.
 *
 * vma->vm_mm->mmap_sem must be held.
 *
 * If @nonblocking is NULL, it may be held for read or write and will
 * be unperturbed.
 *
 * If @nonblocking is non-NULL, it must held for read only and may be
 * released.  If it's released, *@nonblocking will be set to 0.
 */
long populate_vma_page_range(struct vm_area_struct *vma,
		unsigned long start, unsigned long end, int *nonblocking)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = vma->vm_mm;
	unsigned long nr_pages = (end - start) / PAGE_SIZE;
	int gup_flags;

	VM_BUG_ON(start & ~PAGE_MASK);
	VM_BUG_ON(end   & ~PAGE_MASK);
	VM_BUG_ON_VMA(start < vma->vm_start, vma);
	VM_BUG_ON_VMA(end   > vma->vm_end, vma);
	VM_BUG_ON_MM(!rwsem_is_locked(&mm->mmap_sem), mm);

	gup_flags = FOLL_TOUCH | FOLL_POPULATE | FOLL_MLOCK;
	if (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKONFAULT)
		gup_flags &= ~FOLL_POPULATE;
	/*
	 * We want to touch writable mappings with a write fault in order
	 * to break COW, except for shared mappings because these don't COW
	 * and we would not want to dirty them for nothing.
	 */
	if ((vma->vm_flags & (VM_WRITE | VM_SHARED)) == VM_WRITE)
		gup_flags |= FOLL_WRITE;

	/*
	 * We want mlock to succeed for regions that have any permissions
	 * other than PROT_NONE.
	 */
	if (vma->vm_flags & (VM_READ | VM_WRITE | VM_EXEC))
		gup_flags |= FOLL_FORCE;

	/*
	 * We made sure addr is within a VMA, so the following will
	 * not result in a stack expansion that recurses back here.
	 */
	return __get_user_pages(current, mm, start, nr_pages, gup_flags,
				NULL, NULL, nonblocking);
}

/*
 * __mm_populate - populate and/or mlock pages within a range of address space.
 *
 * This is used to implement mlock() and the MAP_POPULATE / MAP_LOCKED mmap
 * flags. VMAs must be already marked with the desired vm_flags, and
 * mmap_sem must not be held.
 */
int __mm_populate(unsigned long start, unsigned long len, int ignore_errors)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
	unsigned long end, nstart, nend;
	struct vm_area_struct *vma = NULL;
	int locked = 0;
	long ret = 0;

	VM_BUG_ON(start & ~PAGE_MASK);
	VM_BUG_ON(len != PAGE_ALIGN(len));
	end = start + len;

	for (nstart = start; nstart < end; nstart = nend) {
		/*
		 * We want to fault in pages for [nstart; end) address range.
		 * Find first corresponding VMA.
		 */
		if (!locked) {
			locked = 1;
			down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
			vma = find_vma(mm, nstart);
		} else if (nstart >= vma->vm_end)
			vma = vma->vm_next;
		if (!vma || vma->vm_start >= end)
			break;
		/*
		 * Set [nstart; nend) to intersection of desired address
		 * range with the first VMA. Also, skip undesirable VMA types.
		 */
		nend = min(end, vma->vm_end);
		if (vma->vm_flags & (VM_IO | VM_PFNMAP))
			continue;
		if (nstart < vma->vm_start)
			nstart = vma->vm_start;
		/*
		 * Now fault in a range of pages. populate_vma_page_range()
		 * double checks the vma flags, so that it won't mlock pages
		 * if the vma was already munlocked.
		 */
		ret = populate_vma_page_range(vma, nstart, nend, &locked);
		if (ret < 0) {
			if (ignore_errors) {
				ret = 0;
				continue;	/* continue at next VMA */
			}
			break;
		}
		nend = nstart + ret * PAGE_SIZE;
		ret = 0;
	}
	if (locked)
		up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);
	return ret;	/* 0 or negative error code */
}

/**
 * get_dump_page() - pin user page in memory while writing it to core dump
 * @addr: user address
 *
 * Returns struct page pointer of user page pinned for dump,
 * to be freed afterwards by put_page().
 *
 * Returns NULL on any kind of failure - a hole must then be inserted into
 * the corefile, to preserve alignment with its headers; and also returns
 * NULL wherever the ZERO_PAGE, or an anonymous pte_none, has been found -
 * allowing a hole to be left in the corefile to save diskspace.
 *
 * Called without mmap_sem, but after all other threads have been killed.
 */
#ifdef CONFIG_ELF_CORE
struct page *get_dump_page(unsigned long addr)
{
	struct vm_area_struct *vma;
	struct page *page;

	if (__get_user_pages(current, current->mm, addr, 1,
			     FOLL_FORCE | FOLL_DUMP | FOLL_GET, &page, &vma,
			     NULL) < 1)
		return NULL;
	flush_cache_page(vma, addr, page_to_pfn(page));
	return page;
}
#endif /* CONFIG_ELF_CORE */

/*
 * Generic RCU Fast GUP
 *
 * get_user_pages_fast attempts to pin user pages by walking the page
 * tables directly and avoids taking locks. Thus the walker needs to be
 * protected from page table pages being freed from under it, and should
 * block any THP splits.
 *
 * One way to achieve this is to have the walker disable interrupts, and
 * rely on IPIs from the TLB flushing code blocking before the page table
 * pages are freed. This is unsuitable for architectures that do not need
 * to broadcast an IPI when invalidating TLBs.
 *
 * Another way to achieve this is to batch up page table containing pages
 * belonging to more than one mm_user, then rcu_sched a callback to free those
 * pages. Disabling interrupts will allow the fast_gup walker to both block
 * the rcu_sched callback, and an IPI that we broadcast for splitting THPs
 * (which is a relatively rare event). The code below adopts this strategy.
 *
 * Before activating this code, please be aware that the following assumptions
 * are currently made:
 *
 *  *) HAVE_RCU_TABLE_FREE is enabled, and tlb_remove_table is used to free
 *      pages containing page tables.
 *
 *  *) ptes can be read atomically by the architecture.
 *
 *  *) access_ok is sufficient to validate userspace address ranges.
 *
 * The last two assumptions can be relaxed by the addition of helper functions.
 *
 * This code is based heavily on the PowerPC implementation by Nick Piggin.
 */
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_GENERIC_RCU_GUP

#ifndef gup_get_pte
/*
 * We assume that the PTE can be read atomically. If this is not the case for
 * your architecture, please provide the helper.
 */
static inline pte_t gup_get_pte(pte_t *ptep)
{
	return READ_ONCE(*ptep);
}
#endif

static void undo_dev_pagemap(int *nr, int nr_start, struct page **pages)
{
	while ((*nr) - nr_start) {
		struct page *page = pages[--(*nr)];

		ClearPageReferenced(page);
		put_page(page);
	}
}

#ifdef __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_SPECIAL
static int gup_pte_range(pmd_t pmd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	struct dev_pagemap *pgmap = NULL;
	int nr_start = *nr, ret = 0;
	pte_t *ptep, *ptem;

	ptem = ptep = pte_offset_map(&pmd, addr);
	do {
		pte_t pte = gup_get_pte(ptep);
		struct page *head, *page;

		/*
		 * Similar to the PMD case below, NUMA hinting must take slow
		 * path using the pte_protnone check.
		 */
		if (pte_protnone(pte))
			goto pte_unmap;

		if (!pte_access_permitted(pte, write))
			goto pte_unmap;

		if (pte_devmap(pte)) {
			pgmap = get_dev_pagemap(pte_pfn(pte), pgmap);
			if (unlikely(!pgmap)) {
				undo_dev_pagemap(nr, nr_start, pages);
				goto pte_unmap;
			}
		} else if (pte_special(pte))
			goto pte_unmap;

		VM_BUG_ON(!pfn_valid(pte_pfn(pte)));
		page = pte_page(pte);
		head = compound_head(page);

		if (!page_cache_get_speculative(head))
			goto pte_unmap;

		if (unlikely(pte_val(pte) != pte_val(*ptep))) {
			put_page(head);
			goto pte_unmap;
		}

		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);

		put_dev_pagemap(pgmap);
		SetPageReferenced(page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;

	} while (ptep++, addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	ret = 1;

pte_unmap:
	pte_unmap(ptem);
	return ret;
}
#else

/*
 * If we can't determine whether or not a pte is special, then fail immediately
 * for ptes. Note, we can still pin HugeTLB and THP as these are guaranteed not
 * to be special.
 *
 * For a futex to be placed on a THP tail page, get_futex_key requires a
 * __get_user_pages_fast implementation that can pin pages. Thus it's still
 * useful to have gup_huge_pmd even if we can't operate on ptes.
 */
static int gup_pte_range(pmd_t pmd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	return 0;
}
#endif /* __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_SPECIAL */

#ifdef __HAVE_ARCH_PTE_DEVMAP
static int __gup_device_huge(unsigned long pfn, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	int nr_start = *nr;
	struct dev_pagemap *pgmap = NULL;

	do {
		struct page *page = pfn_to_page(pfn);

		pgmap = get_dev_pagemap(pfn, pgmap);
		if (unlikely(!pgmap)) {
			undo_dev_pagemap(nr, nr_start, pages);
			return 0;
		}
		SetPageReferenced(page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		get_page(page);
		put_dev_pagemap(pgmap);
		(*nr)++;
		pfn++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);
	return 1;
}

static int __gup_device_huge_pmd(pmd_t pmd, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	unsigned long fault_pfn;

	fault_pfn = pmd_pfn(pmd) + ((addr & ~PMD_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	return __gup_device_huge(fault_pfn, addr, end, pages, nr);
}

static int __gup_device_huge_pud(pud_t pud, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	unsigned long fault_pfn;

	fault_pfn = pud_pfn(pud) + ((addr & ~PUD_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	return __gup_device_huge(fault_pfn, addr, end, pages, nr);
}
#else
static int __gup_device_huge_pmd(pmd_t pmd, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	BUILD_BUG();
	return 0;
}

static int __gup_device_huge_pud(pud_t pud, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	BUILD_BUG();
	return 0;
}
#endif

static int gup_huge_pmd(pmd_t orig, pmd_t *pmdp, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	struct page *head, *page;
	int refs;

	if (!pmd_access_permitted(orig, write))
		return 0;

	if (pmd_devmap(orig))
		return __gup_device_huge_pmd(orig, addr, end, pages, nr);

	refs = 0;
	head = pmd_page(orig);
	page = head + ((addr & ~PMD_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	do {
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;
		page++;
		refs++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	if (!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)) {
		*nr -= refs;
		return 0;
	}

	if (unlikely(pmd_val(orig) != pmd_val(*pmdp))) {
		*nr -= refs;
		while (refs--)
			put_page(head);
		return 0;
	}

	SetPageReferenced(head);
	return 1;
}

static int gup_huge_pud(pud_t orig, pud_t *pudp, unsigned long addr,
		unsigned long end, int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	struct page *head, *page;
	int refs;

	if (!pud_access_permitted(orig, write))
		return 0;

	if (pud_devmap(orig))
		return __gup_device_huge_pud(orig, addr, end, pages, nr);

	refs = 0;
	head = pud_page(orig);
	page = head + ((addr & ~PUD_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	do {
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;
		page++;
		refs++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	if (!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)) {
		*nr -= refs;
		return 0;
	}

	if (unlikely(pud_val(orig) != pud_val(*pudp))) {
		*nr -= refs;
		while (refs--)
			put_page(head);
		return 0;
	}

	SetPageReferenced(head);
	return 1;
}

static int gup_huge_pgd(pgd_t orig, pgd_t *pgdp, unsigned long addr,
			unsigned long end, int write,
			struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	int refs;
	struct page *head, *page;

	if (!pgd_access_permitted(orig, write))
		return 0;

	BUILD_BUG_ON(pgd_devmap(orig));
	refs = 0;
	head = pgd_page(orig);
	page = head + ((addr & ~PGDIR_MASK) >> PAGE_SHIFT);
	do {
		VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(compound_head(page) != head, page);
		pages[*nr] = page;
		(*nr)++;
		page++;
		refs++;
	} while (addr += PAGE_SIZE, addr != end);

	if (!page_cache_add_speculative(head, refs)) {
		*nr -= refs;
		return 0;
	}

	if (unlikely(pgd_val(orig) != pgd_val(*pgdp))) {
		*nr -= refs;
		while (refs--)
			put_page(head);
		return 0;
	}

	SetPageReferenced(head);
	return 1;
}

static int gup_pmd_range(pud_t pud, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
		int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	unsigned long next;
	pmd_t *pmdp;

	pmdp = pmd_offset(&pud, addr);
	do {
		pmd_t pmd = READ_ONCE(*pmdp);

		next = pmd_addr_end(addr, end);
		if (pmd_none(pmd))
			return 0;

		if (unlikely(pmd_trans_huge(pmd) || pmd_huge(pmd))) {
			/*
			 * NUMA hinting faults need to be handled in the GUP
			 * slowpath for accounting purposes and so that they
			 * can be serialised against THP migration.
			 */
			if (pmd_protnone(pmd))
				return 0;

			if (!gup_huge_pmd(pmd, pmdp, addr, next, write,
				pages, nr))
				return 0;

		} else if (unlikely(is_hugepd(__hugepd(pmd_val(pmd))))) {
			/*
			 * architecture have different format for hugetlbfs
			 * pmd format and THP pmd format
			 */
			if (!gup_huge_pd(__hugepd(pmd_val(pmd)), addr,
					 PMD_SHIFT, next, write, pages, nr))
				return 0;
		} else if (!gup_pte_range(pmd, addr, next, write, pages, nr))
				return 0;
	} while (pmdp++, addr = next, addr != end);

	return 1;
}

static int gup_pud_range(p4d_t p4d, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	unsigned long next;
	pud_t *pudp;

	pudp = pud_offset(&p4d, addr);
	do {
		pud_t pud = READ_ONCE(*pudp);

		next = pud_addr_end(addr, end);
		if (pud_none(pud))
			return 0;
		if (unlikely(pud_huge(pud))) {
			if (!gup_huge_pud(pud, pudp, addr, next, write,
					  pages, nr))
				return 0;
		} else if (unlikely(is_hugepd(__hugepd(pud_val(pud))))) {
			if (!gup_huge_pd(__hugepd(pud_val(pud)), addr,
					 PUD_SHIFT, next, write, pages, nr))
				return 0;
		} else if (!gup_pmd_range(pud, addr, next, write, pages, nr))
			return 0;
	} while (pudp++, addr = next, addr != end);

	return 1;
}

static int gup_p4d_range(pgd_t pgd, unsigned long addr, unsigned long end,
			 int write, struct page **pages, int *nr)
{
	unsigned long next;
	p4d_t *p4dp;

	p4dp = p4d_offset(&pgd, addr);
	do {
		p4d_t p4d = READ_ONCE(*p4dp);

		next = p4d_addr_end(addr, end);
		if (p4d_none(p4d))
			return 0;
		BUILD_BUG_ON(p4d_huge(p4d));
		if (unlikely(is_hugepd(__hugepd(p4d_val(p4d))))) {
			if (!gup_huge_pd(__hugepd(p4d_val(p4d)), addr,
					 P4D_SHIFT, next, write, pages, nr))
				return 0;
		} else if (!gup_pud_range(p4d, addr, next, write, pages, nr))
			return 0;
	} while (p4dp++, addr = next, addr != end);

	return 1;
}

/*
 * Like get_user_pages_fast() except it's IRQ-safe in that it won't fall back to
 * the regular GUP. It will only return non-negative values.
 */
int __get_user_pages_fast(unsigned long start, int nr_pages, int write,
			  struct page **pages)
{
	struct mm_struct *mm = current->mm;
	unsigned long addr, len, end;
	unsigned long next, flags;
	pgd_t *pgdp;
	int nr = 0;

	start &= PAGE_MASK;
	addr = start;
	len = (unsigned long) nr_pages << PAGE_SHIFT;
	end = start + len;

	if (unlikely(!access_ok(write ? VERIFY_WRITE : VERIFY_READ,
					(void __user *)start, len)))
		return 0;

	/*
	 * Disable interrupts.  We use the nested form as we can already have
	 * interrupts disabled by get_futex_key.
	 *
	 * With interrupts disabled, we block page table pages from being
	 * freed from under us. See mmu_gather_tlb in asm-generic/tlb.h
	 * for more details.
	 *
	 * We do not adopt an rcu_read_lock(.) here as we also want to
	 * block IPIs that come from THPs splitting.
	 */

	local_irq_save(flags);
	pgdp = pgd_offset(mm, addr);
	do {
		pgd_t pgd = READ_ONCE(*pgdp);

		next = pgd_addr_end(addr, end);
		if (pgd_none(pgd))
			break;
		if (unlikely(pgd_huge(pgd))) {
			if (!gup_huge_pgd(pgd, pgdp, addr, next, write,
					  pages, &nr))
				break;
		} else if (unlikely(is_hugepd(__hugepd(pgd_val(pgd))))) {
			if (!gup_huge_pd(__hugepd(pgd_val(pgd)), addr,
					 PGDIR_SHIFT, next, write, pages, &nr))
				break;
		} else if (!gup_p4d_range(pgd, addr, next, write, pages, &nr))
			break;
	} while (pgdp++, addr = next, addr != end);
	local_irq_restore(flags);

	return nr;
}

#ifndef gup_fast_permitted
/*
 * Check if it's allowed to use __get_user_pages_fast() for the range, or
 * we need to fall back to the slow version:
 */
bool gup_fast_permitted(unsigned long start, int nr_pages, int write)
{
	unsigned long len, end;

	len = (unsigned long) nr_pages << PAGE_SHIFT;
	end = start + len;
	return end >= start;
}
#endif

/**
 * get_user_pages_fast() - pin user pages in memory
 * @start:	starting user address
 * @nr_pages:	number of pages from start to pin
 * @write:	whether pages will be written to
 * @pages:	array that receives pointers to the pages pinned.
 *		Should be at least nr_pages long.
 *
 * Attempt to pin user pages in memory without taking mm->mmap_sem.
 * If not successful, it will fall back to taking the lock and
 * calling get_user_pages().
 *
 * Returns number of pages pinned. This may be fewer than the number
 * requested. If nr_pages is 0 or negative, returns 0. If no pages
 * were pinned, returns -errno.
 */
int get_user_pages_fast(unsigned long start, int nr_pages, int write,
			struct page **pages)
{
	int nr = 0, ret = 0;

	start &= PAGE_MASK;

	if (gup_fast_permitted(start, nr_pages, write)) {
		nr = __get_user_pages_fast(start, nr_pages, write, pages);
		ret = nr;
	}

	if (nr < nr_pages) {
		/* Try to get the remaining pages with get_user_pages */
		start += nr << PAGE_SHIFT;
		pages += nr;

		ret = get_user_pages_unlocked(start, nr_pages - nr, pages,
				write ? FOLL_WRITE : 0);

		/* Have to be a bit careful with return values */
		if (nr > 0) {
			if (ret < 0)
				ret = nr;
			else
				ret += nr;
		}
	}

	return ret;
}

#endif /* CONFIG_HAVE_GENERIC_RCU_GUP */