Home Home > GIT Browse
summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
blob: 856ac20bf36782f0aab56612abfd4cba2a69b861 (plain)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
	"http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/xml/4.1.2/docbookx.dtd" []>

<book id="kgdbOnLinux">
 <bookinfo>
  <title>Using kgdb, kdb and the kernel debugger internals</title>

  <authorgroup>
   <author>
    <firstname>Jason</firstname>
    <surname>Wessel</surname>
    <affiliation>
     <address>
      <email>jason.wessel@windriver.com</email>
     </address>
    </affiliation>
   </author>
  </authorgroup>
  <copyright>
   <year>2008,2010</year>
   <holder>Wind River Systems, Inc.</holder>
  </copyright>
  <copyright>
   <year>2004-2005</year>
   <holder>MontaVista Software, Inc.</holder>
  </copyright>
  <copyright>
   <year>2004</year>
   <holder>Amit S. Kale</holder>
  </copyright>

  <legalnotice>
   <para>
   This file is licensed under the terms of the GNU General Public License
   version 2. This program is licensed "as is" without any warranty of any
   kind, whether express or implied.
   </para>

  </legalnotice>
 </bookinfo>

<toc></toc>
  <chapter id="Introduction">
    <title>Introduction</title>
    <para>
    The kernel has two different debugger front ends (kdb and kgdb)
    which interface to the debug core.  It is possible to use either
    of the debugger front ends and dynamically transition between them
    if you configure the kernel properly at compile and runtime.
    </para>
    <para>
    Kdb is simplistic shell-style interface which you can use on a
    system console with a keyboard or serial console.  You can use it
    to inspect memory, registers, process lists, dmesg, and even set
    breakpoints to stop in a certain location.  Kdb is not a source
    level debugger, although you can set breakpoints and execute some
    basic kernel run control.  Kdb is mainly aimed at doing some
    analysis to aid in development or diagnosing kernel problems.  You
    can access some symbols by name in kernel built-ins or in kernel
    modules if the code was built
    with <symbol>CONFIG_KALLSYMS</symbol>.
    </para>
    <para>
    Kgdb is intended to be used as a source level debugger for the
    Linux kernel. It is used along with gdb to debug a Linux kernel.
    The expectation is that gdb can be used to "break in" to the
    kernel to inspect memory, variables and look through call stack
    information similar to the way an application developer would use
    gdb to debug an application.  It is possible to place breakpoints
    in kernel code and perform some limited execution stepping.
    </para>
    <para>
    Two machines are required for using kgdb. One of these machines is
    a development machine and the other is the target machine.  The
    kernel to be debugged runs on the target machine. The development
    machine runs an instance of gdb against the vmlinux file which
    contains the symbols (not a boot image such as bzImage, zImage,
    uImage...).  In gdb the developer specifies the connection
    parameters and connects to kgdb.  The type of connection a
    developer makes with gdb depends on the availability of kgdb I/O
    modules compiled as built-ins or loadable kernel modules in the test
    machine's kernel.
    </para>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="CompilingAKernel">
  <title>Compiling a kernel</title>
  <para>
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para>In order to enable compilation of kdb, you must first enable kgdb.</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>The kgdb test compile options are described in the kgdb test suite chapter.</para></listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </para>
  <sect1 id="CompileKGDB">
    <title>Kernel config options for kgdb</title>
    <para>
    To enable <symbol>CONFIG_KGDB</symbol> you should look under
    "Kernel hacking" / "Kernel debugging" and select "KGDB: kernel debugger".
    </para>
    <para>
    While it is not a hard requirement that you have symbols in your
    vmlinux file, gdb tends not to be very useful without the symbolic
    data, so you will want to turn
    on <symbol>CONFIG_DEBUG_INFO</symbol> which is called "Compile the
    kernel with debug info" in the config menu.
    </para>
    <para>
    It is advised, but not required, that you turn on the
    <symbol>CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER</symbol> kernel option which is called "Compile the
    kernel with frame pointers" in the config menu.  This option
    inserts code to into the compiled executable which saves the frame
    information in registers or on the stack at different points which
    allows a debugger such as gdb to more accurately construct
    stack back traces while debugging the kernel.
    </para>
    <para>
    If the architecture that you are using supports the kernel option
    CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX, you should consider turning it off.  This
    option will prevent the use of software breakpoints because it
    marks certain regions of the kernel's memory space as read-only.
    If kgdb supports it for the architecture you are using, you can
    use hardware breakpoints if you desire to run with the
    CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX option turned on, else you need to turn off
    this option.
    </para>
    <para>
    Next you should choose one of more I/O drivers to interconnect
    debugging host and debugged target.  Early boot debugging requires
    a KGDB I/O driver that supports early debugging and the driver
    must be built into the kernel directly. Kgdb I/O driver
    configuration takes place via kernel or module parameters which
    you can learn more about in the in the section that describes the
    parameter "kgdboc".
    </para>
    <para>Here is an example set of .config symbols to enable or
    disable for kgdb:
    <itemizedlist>
    <listitem><para># CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX is not set</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER=y</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_KGDB=y</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_KGDB_SERIAL_CONSOLE=y</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
    </para>
  </sect1>
  <sect1 id="CompileKDB">
    <title>Kernel config options for kdb</title>
    <para>Kdb is quite a bit more complex than the simple gdbstub
    sitting on top of the kernel's debug core.  Kdb must implement a
    shell, and also adds some helper functions in other parts of the
    kernel, responsible for printing out interesting data such as what
    you would see if you ran "lsmod", or "ps".  In order to build kdb
    into the kernel you follow the same steps as you would for kgdb.
    </para>
    <para>The main config option for kdb
    is <symbol>CONFIG_KGDB_KDB</symbol> which is called "KGDB_KDB:
    include kdb frontend for kgdb" in the config menu.  In theory you
    would have already also selected an I/O driver such as the
    CONFIG_KGDB_SERIAL_CONSOLE interface if you plan on using kdb on a
    serial port, when you were configuring kgdb.
    </para>
    <para>If you want to use a PS/2-style keyboard with kdb, you would
    select CONFIG_KDB_KEYBOARD which is called "KGDB_KDB: keyboard as
    input device" in the config menu.  The CONFIG_KDB_KEYBOARD option
    is not used for anything in the gdb interface to kgdb.  The
    CONFIG_KDB_KEYBOARD option only works with kdb.
    </para>
    <para>Here is an example set of .config symbols to enable/disable kdb:
    <itemizedlist>
    <listitem><para># CONFIG_STRICT_KERNEL_RWX is not set</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER=y</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_KGDB=y</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_KGDB_SERIAL_CONSOLE=y</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_KGDB_KDB=y</para></listitem>
    <listitem><para>CONFIG_KDB_KEYBOARD=y</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
    </para>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="kgdbKernelArgs">
  <title>Kernel Debugger Boot Arguments</title>
  <para>This section describes the various runtime kernel
  parameters that affect the configuration of the kernel debugger.
  The following chapter covers using kdb and kgdb as well as
  providing some examples of the configuration parameters.</para>
   <sect1 id="kgdboc">
   <title>Kernel parameter: kgdboc</title>
   <para>The kgdboc driver was originally an abbreviation meant to
   stand for "kgdb over console".  Today it is the primary mechanism
   to configure how to communicate from gdb to kgdb as well as the
   devices you want to use to interact with the kdb shell.
   </para>
   <para>For kgdb/gdb, kgdboc is designed to work with a single serial
   port. It is intended to cover the circumstance where you want to
   use a serial console as your primary console as well as using it to
   perform kernel debugging.  It is also possible to use kgdb on a
   serial port which is not designated as a system console.  Kgdboc
   may be configured as a kernel built-in or a kernel loadable module.
   You can only make use of <constant>kgdbwait</constant> and early
   debugging if you build kgdboc into the kernel as a built-in.
   </para>
   <para>Optionally you can elect to activate kms (Kernel Mode
   Setting) integration.  When you use kms with kgdboc and you have a
   video driver that has atomic mode setting hooks, it is possible to
   enter the debugger on the graphics console.  When the kernel
   execution is resumed, the previous graphics mode will be restored.
   This integration can serve as a useful tool to aid in diagnosing
   crashes or doing analysis of memory with kdb while allowing the
   full graphics console applications to run.
   </para>
   <sect2 id="kgdbocArgs">
   <title>kgdboc arguments</title>
   <para>Usage: <constant>kgdboc=[kms][[,]kbd][[,]serial_device][,baud]</constant></para>
   <para>The order listed above must be observed if you use any of the
   optional configurations together.
   </para>
   <para>Abbreviations:
   <itemizedlist>
   <listitem><para>kms = Kernel Mode Setting</para></listitem>
   <listitem><para>kbd = Keyboard</para></listitem>
   </itemizedlist>
   </para>
   <para>You can configure kgdboc to use the keyboard, and/or a serial
   device depending on if you are using kdb and/or kgdb, in one of the
   following scenarios.  The order listed above must be observed if
   you use any of the optional configurations together.  Using kms +
   only gdb is generally not a useful combination.</para>
   <sect3 id="kgdbocArgs1">
   <title>Using loadable module or built-in</title>
   <para>
   <orderedlist>
   <listitem><para>As a kernel built-in:</para>
   <para>Use the kernel boot argument: <constant>kgdboc=&lt;tty-device&gt;,[baud]</constant></para></listitem>
   <listitem>
   <para>As a kernel loadable module:</para>
   <para>Use the command: <constant>modprobe kgdboc kgdboc=&lt;tty-device&gt;,[baud]</constant></para>
   <para>Here are two examples of how you might format the kgdboc
   string. The first is for an x86 target using the first serial port.
   The second example is for the ARM Versatile AB using the second
   serial port.
   <orderedlist>
   <listitem><para><constant>kgdboc=ttyS0,115200</constant></para></listitem>
   <listitem><para><constant>kgdboc=ttyAMA1,115200</constant></para></listitem>
   </orderedlist>
   </para>
   </listitem>
   </orderedlist></para>
   </sect3>
   <sect3 id="kgdbocArgs2">
   <title>Configure kgdboc at runtime with sysfs</title>
   <para>At run time you can enable or disable kgdboc by echoing a
   parameters into the sysfs.  Here are two examples:</para>
   <orderedlist>
   <listitem><para>Enable kgdboc on ttyS0</para>
   <para><constant>echo ttyS0 &gt; /sys/module/kgdboc/parameters/kgdboc</constant></para></listitem>
   <listitem><para>Disable kgdboc</para>
   <para><constant>echo "" &gt; /sys/module/kgdboc/parameters/kgdboc</constant></para></listitem>
   </orderedlist>
   <para>NOTE: You do not need to specify the baud if you are
   configuring the console on tty which is already configured or
   open.</para>
   </sect3>
   <sect3 id="kgdbocArgs3">
   <title>More examples</title>
   <para>You can configure kgdboc to use the keyboard, and/or a serial device
   depending on if you are using kdb and/or kgdb, in one of the
   following scenarios.
   <orderedlist>
   <listitem><para>kdb and kgdb over only a serial port</para>
   <para><constant>kgdboc=&lt;serial_device&gt;[,baud]</constant></para>
   <para>Example: <constant>kgdboc=ttyS0,115200</constant></para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>kdb and kgdb with keyboard and a serial port</para>
   <para><constant>kgdboc=kbd,&lt;serial_device&gt;[,baud]</constant></para>
   <para>Example: <constant>kgdboc=kbd,ttyS0,115200</constant></para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>kdb with a keyboard</para>
   <para><constant>kgdboc=kbd</constant></para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>kdb with kernel mode setting</para>
   <para><constant>kgdboc=kms,kbd</constant></para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>kdb with kernel mode setting and kgdb over a serial port</para>
   <para><constant>kgdboc=kms,kbd,ttyS0,115200</constant></para>
   </listitem>
   </orderedlist>
   </para>
   <para>NOTE: Kgdboc does not support interrupting the target via the
   gdb remote protocol.  You must manually send a sysrq-g unless you
   have a proxy that splits console output to a terminal program.
   A console proxy has a separate TCP port for the debugger and a separate
   TCP port for the "human" console.  The proxy can take care of sending
   the sysrq-g for you.
   </para>
   <para>When using kgdboc with no debugger proxy, you can end up
    connecting the debugger at one of two entry points.  If an
    exception occurs after you have loaded kgdboc, a message should
    print on the console stating it is waiting for the debugger.  In
    this case you disconnect your terminal program and then connect the
    debugger in its place.  If you want to interrupt the target system
    and forcibly enter a debug session you have to issue a Sysrq
    sequence and then type the letter <constant>g</constant>.  Then
    you disconnect the terminal session and connect gdb.  Your options
    if you don't like this are to hack gdb to send the sysrq-g for you
    as well as on the initial connect, or to use a debugger proxy that
    allows an unmodified gdb to do the debugging.
   </para>
   </sect3>
   </sect2>
   </sect1>
   <sect1 id="kgdbwait">
   <title>Kernel parameter: kgdbwait</title>
   <para>
   The Kernel command line option <constant>kgdbwait</constant> makes
   kgdb wait for a debugger connection during booting of a kernel.  You
   can only use this option if you compiled a kgdb I/O driver into the
   kernel and you specified the I/O driver configuration as a kernel
   command line option.  The kgdbwait parameter should always follow the
   configuration parameter for the kgdb I/O driver in the kernel
   command line else the I/O driver will not be configured prior to
   asking the kernel to use it to wait.
   </para>
   <para>
   The kernel will stop and wait as early as the I/O driver and
   architecture allows when you use this option.  If you build the
   kgdb I/O driver as a loadable kernel module kgdbwait will not do
   anything.
   </para>
   </sect1>
   <sect1 id="kgdbcon">
   <title>Kernel parameter: kgdbcon</title>
   <para> The kgdbcon feature allows you to see printk() messages
   inside gdb while gdb is connected to the kernel.  Kdb does not make
    use of the kgdbcon feature.
   </para>
   <para>Kgdb supports using the gdb serial protocol to send console
   messages to the debugger when the debugger is connected and running.
   There are two ways to activate this feature.
   <orderedlist>
   <listitem><para>Activate with the kernel command line option:</para>
   <para><constant>kgdbcon</constant></para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>Use sysfs before configuring an I/O driver</para>
   <para>
   <constant>echo 1 &gt; /sys/module/kgdb/parameters/kgdb_use_con</constant>
   </para>
   <para>
   NOTE: If you do this after you configure the kgdb I/O driver, the
   setting will not take effect until the next point the I/O is
   reconfigured.
   </para>
   </listitem>
   </orderedlist>
  </para>
   <para>IMPORTANT NOTE: You cannot use kgdboc + kgdbcon on a tty that is an
   active system console.  An example of incorrect usage is <constant>console=ttyS0,115200 kgdboc=ttyS0 kgdbcon</constant>
   </para>
   <para>It is possible to use this option with kgdboc on a tty that is not a system console.
   </para>
  </sect1>
   <sect1 id="kgdbreboot">
   <title>Run time parameter: kgdbreboot</title>
   <para> The kgdbreboot feature allows you to change how the debugger
   deals with the reboot notification.  You have 3 choices for the
   behavior.  The default behavior is always set to 0.</para>
   <orderedlist>
   <listitem><para>echo -1 > /sys/module/debug_core/parameters/kgdbreboot</para>
   <para>Ignore the reboot notification entirely.</para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>echo 0 > /sys/module/debug_core/parameters/kgdbreboot</para>
   <para>Send the detach message to any attached debugger client.</para>
   </listitem>
   <listitem><para>echo 1 > /sys/module/debug_core/parameters/kgdbreboot</para>
   <para>Enter the debugger on reboot notify.</para>
   </listitem>
   </orderedlist>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="usingKDB">
  <title>Using kdb</title>
  <para>
  </para>
  <sect1 id="quickKDBserial">
  <title>Quick start for kdb on a serial port</title>
  <para>This is a quick example of how to use kdb.</para>
  <para><orderedlist>
  <listitem><para>Configure kgdboc at boot using kernel parameters:
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para><constant>console=ttyS0,115200 kgdboc=ttyS0,115200</constant></para></listitem>
  </itemizedlist></para>
  <para>OR</para>
  <para>Configure kgdboc after the kernel has booted; assuming you are using a serial port console:
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para><constant>echo ttyS0 &gt; /sys/module/kgdboc/parameters/kgdboc</constant></para></listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem><para>Enter the kernel debugger manually or by waiting for an oops or fault.  There are several ways you can enter the kernel debugger manually; all involve using the sysrq-g, which means you must have enabled CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ=y in your kernel config.</para>
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para>When logged in as root or with a super user session you can run:</para>
   <para><constant>echo g &gt; /proc/sysrq-trigger</constant></para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>Example using minicom 2.2</para>
  <para>Press: <constant>Control-a</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>f</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>g</constant></para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem><para>When you have telneted to a terminal server that supports sending a remote break</para>
  <para>Press: <constant>Control-]</constant></para>
  <para>Type in:<constant>send break</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>Enter</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>g</constant></para>
  </listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </listitem>
  <listitem><para>From the kdb prompt you can run the "help" command to see a complete list of the commands that are available.</para>
  <para>Some useful commands in kdb include:
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para>lsmod  -- Shows where kernel modules are loaded</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>ps -- Displays only the active processes</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>ps A -- Shows all the processes</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>summary -- Shows kernel version info and memory usage</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>bt -- Get a backtrace of the current process using dump_stack()</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>dmesg -- View the kernel syslog buffer</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>go -- Continue the system</para></listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem>
  <para>When you are done using kdb you need to consider rebooting the
  system or using the "go" command to resuming normal kernel
  execution.  If you have paused the kernel for a lengthy period of
  time, applications that rely on timely networking or anything to do
  with real wall clock time could be adversely affected, so you
  should take this into consideration when using the kernel
  debugger.</para>
  </listitem>
  </orderedlist></para>
  </sect1>
  <sect1 id="quickKDBkeyboard">
  <title>Quick start for kdb using a keyboard connected console</title>
  <para>This is a quick example of how to use kdb with a keyboard.</para>
  <para><orderedlist>
  <listitem><para>Configure kgdboc at boot using kernel parameters:
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para><constant>kgdboc=kbd</constant></para></listitem>
  </itemizedlist></para>
  <para>OR</para>
  <para>Configure kgdboc after the kernel has booted:
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para><constant>echo kbd &gt; /sys/module/kgdboc/parameters/kgdboc</constant></para></listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem><para>Enter the kernel debugger manually or by waiting for an oops or fault.  There are several ways you can enter the kernel debugger manually; all involve using the sysrq-g, which means you must have enabled CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ=y in your kernel config.</para>
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para>When logged in as root or with a super user session you can run:</para>
   <para><constant>echo g &gt; /proc/sysrq-trigger</constant></para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>Example using a laptop keyboard</para>
  <para>Press and hold down: <constant>Alt</constant></para>
  <para>Press and hold down: <constant>Fn</constant></para>
  <para>Press and release the key with the label: <constant>SysRq</constant></para>
  <para>Release: <constant>Fn</constant></para>
  <para>Press and release: <constant>g</constant></para>
  <para>Release: <constant>Alt</constant></para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem><para>Example using a PS/2 101-key keyboard</para>
  <para>Press and hold down: <constant>Alt</constant></para>
  <para>Press and release the key with the label: <constant>SysRq</constant></para>
  <para>Press and release: <constant>g</constant></para>
  <para>Release: <constant>Alt</constant></para>
  </listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </listitem>
  <listitem>
  <para>Now type in a kdb command such as "help", "dmesg", "bt" or "go" to continue kernel execution.</para>
  </listitem>
  </orderedlist></para>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="EnableKGDB">
   <title>Using kgdb / gdb</title>
   <para>In order to use kgdb you must activate it by passing
   configuration information to one of the kgdb I/O drivers.  If you
   do not pass any configuration information kgdb will not do anything
   at all.  Kgdb will only actively hook up to the kernel trap hooks
   if a kgdb I/O driver is loaded and configured.  If you unconfigure
   a kgdb I/O driver, kgdb will unregister all the kernel hook points.
   </para>
   <para> All kgdb I/O drivers can be reconfigured at run time, if
   <symbol>CONFIG_SYSFS</symbol> and <symbol>CONFIG_MODULES</symbol>
   are enabled, by echo'ing a new config string to
   <constant>/sys/module/&lt;driver&gt;/parameter/&lt;option&gt;</constant>.
   The driver can be unconfigured by passing an empty string.  You cannot
   change the configuration while the debugger is attached.  Make sure
   to detach the debugger with the <constant>detach</constant> command
   prior to trying to unconfigure a kgdb I/O driver.
   </para>
  <sect1 id="ConnectingGDB">
  <title>Connecting with gdb to a serial port</title>
  <orderedlist>
  <listitem><para>Configure kgdboc</para>
   <para>Configure kgdboc at boot using kernel parameters:
   <itemizedlist>
    <listitem><para><constant>kgdboc=ttyS0,115200</constant></para></listitem>
   </itemizedlist></para>
   <para>OR</para>
   <para>Configure kgdboc after the kernel has booted:
   <itemizedlist>
    <listitem><para><constant>echo ttyS0 &gt; /sys/module/kgdboc/parameters/kgdboc</constant></para></listitem>
   </itemizedlist></para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem>
  <para>Stop kernel execution (break into the debugger)</para>
  <para>In order to connect to gdb via kgdboc, the kernel must
  first be stopped.  There are several ways to stop the kernel which
  include using kgdbwait as a boot argument, via a sysrq-g, or running
  the kernel until it takes an exception where it waits for the
  debugger to attach.
  <itemizedlist>
  <listitem><para>When logged in as root or with a super user session you can run:</para>
   <para><constant>echo g &gt; /proc/sysrq-trigger</constant></para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>Example using minicom 2.2</para>
  <para>Press: <constant>Control-a</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>f</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>g</constant></para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem><para>When you have telneted to a terminal server that supports sending a remote break</para>
  <para>Press: <constant>Control-]</constant></para>
  <para>Type in:<constant>send break</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>Enter</constant></para>
  <para>Press: <constant>g</constant></para>
  </listitem>
  </itemizedlist>
  </para>
  </listitem>
  <listitem>
    <para>Connect from gdb</para>
    <para>
    Example (using a directly connected port):
    </para>
    <programlisting>
    % gdb ./vmlinux
    (gdb) set remotebaud 115200
    (gdb) target remote /dev/ttyS0
    </programlisting>
    <para>
    Example (kgdb to a terminal server on TCP port 2012):
    </para>
    <programlisting>
    % gdb ./vmlinux
    (gdb) target remote 192.168.2.2:2012
    </programlisting>
    <para>
    Once connected, you can debug a kernel the way you would debug an
    application program.
    </para>
    <para>
    If you are having problems connecting or something is going
    seriously wrong while debugging, it will most often be the case
    that you want to enable gdb to be verbose about its target
    communications.  You do this prior to issuing the <constant>target
    remote</constant> command by typing in: <constant>set debug remote 1</constant>
    </para>
  </listitem>
  </orderedlist>
  <para>Remember if you continue in gdb, and need to "break in" again,
  you need to issue an other sysrq-g.  It is easy to create a simple
  entry point by putting a breakpoint at <constant>sys_sync</constant>
  and then you can run "sync" from a shell or script to break into the
  debugger.</para>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="switchKdbKgdb">
  <title>kgdb and kdb interoperability</title>
  <para>It is possible to transition between kdb and kgdb dynamically.
  The debug core will remember which you used the last time and
  automatically start in the same mode.</para>
  <sect1>
  <title>Switching between kdb and kgdb</title>
  <sect2>
  <title>Switching from kgdb to kdb</title>
  <para>
  There are two ways to switch from kgdb to kdb: you can use gdb to
  issue a maintenance packet, or you can blindly type the command $3#33.
  Whenever the kernel debugger stops in kgdb mode it will print the
  message <constant>KGDB or $3#33 for KDB</constant>.  It is important
  to note that you have to type the sequence correctly in one pass.
  You cannot type a backspace or delete because kgdb will interpret
  that as part of the debug stream.
  <orderedlist>
  <listitem><para>Change from kgdb to kdb by blindly typing:</para>
  <para><constant>$3#33</constant></para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>Change from kgdb to kdb with gdb</para>
  <para><constant>maintenance packet 3</constant></para>
  <para>NOTE: Now you must kill gdb. Typically you press control-z and
  issue the command: kill -9 %</para></listitem>
  </orderedlist>
  </para>
  </sect2>
  <sect2>
  <title>Change from kdb to kgdb</title>
  <para>There are two ways you can change from kdb to kgdb.  You can
  manually enter kgdb mode by issuing the kgdb command from the kdb
  shell prompt, or you can connect gdb while the kdb shell prompt is
  active.  The kdb shell looks for the typical first commands that gdb
  would issue with the gdb remote protocol and if it sees one of those
  commands it automatically changes into kgdb mode.</para>
  <orderedlist>
  <listitem><para>From kdb issue the command:</para>
  <para><constant>kgdb</constant></para>
  <para>Now disconnect your terminal program and connect gdb in its place</para></listitem>
  <listitem><para>At the kdb prompt, disconnect the terminal program and connect gdb in its place.</para></listitem>
  </orderedlist>
  </sect2>
  </sect1>
  <sect1>
  <title>Running kdb commands from gdb</title>
  <para>It is possible to run a limited set of kdb commands from gdb,
  using the gdb monitor command.  You don't want to execute any of the
  run control or breakpoint operations, because it can disrupt the
  state of the kernel debugger.  You should be using gdb for
  breakpoints and run control operations if you have gdb connected.
  The more useful commands to run are things like lsmod, dmesg, ps or
  possibly some of the memory information commands.  To see all the kdb
  commands you can run <constant>monitor help</constant>.</para>
  <para>Example:
  <informalexample><programlisting>
(gdb) monitor ps
1 idle process (state I) and
27 sleeping system daemon (state M) processes suppressed,
use 'ps A' to see all.
Task Addr       Pid   Parent [*] cpu State Thread     Command

0xc78291d0        1        0  0    0   S  0xc7829404  init
0xc7954150      942        1  0    0   S  0xc7954384  dropbear
0xc78789c0      944        1  0    0   S  0xc7878bf4  sh
(gdb)
  </programlisting></informalexample>
  </para>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="KGDBTestSuite">
    <title>kgdb Test Suite</title>
    <para>
    When kgdb is enabled in the kernel config you can also elect to
    enable the config parameter KGDB_TESTS.  Turning this on will
    enable a special kgdb I/O module which is designed to test the
    kgdb internal functions.
    </para>
    <para>
    The kgdb tests are mainly intended for developers to test the kgdb
    internals as well as a tool for developing a new kgdb architecture
    specific implementation.  These tests are not really for end users
    of the Linux kernel.  The primary source of documentation would be
    to look in the drivers/misc/kgdbts.c file.
    </para>
    <para>
    The kgdb test suite can also be configured at compile time to run
    the core set of tests by setting the kernel config parameter
    KGDB_TESTS_ON_BOOT.  This particular option is aimed at automated
    regression testing and does not require modifying the kernel boot
    config arguments.  If this is turned on, the kgdb test suite can
    be disabled by specifying "kgdbts=" as a kernel boot argument.
    </para>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="CommonBackEndReq">
  <title>Kernel Debugger Internals</title>
  <sect1 id="kgdbArchitecture">
    <title>Architecture Specifics</title>
      <para>
      The kernel debugger is organized into a number of components:
      <orderedlist>
      <listitem><para>The debug core</para>
      <para>
      The debug core is found in kernel/debugger/debug_core.c.  It contains:
      <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>A generic OS exception handler which includes
      sync'ing the processors into a stopped state on an multi-CPU
      system.</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>The API to talk to the kgdb I/O drivers</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>The API to make calls to the arch-specific kgdb implementation</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>The logic to perform safe memory reads and writes to memory while using the debugger</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>A full implementation for software breakpoints unless overridden by the arch</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>The API to invoke either the kdb or kgdb frontend to the debug core.</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>The structures and callback API for atomic kernel mode setting.</para>
      <para>NOTE: kgdboc is where the kms callbacks are invoked.</para></listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      </para>
      </listitem>
      <listitem><para>kgdb arch-specific implementation</para>
      <para>
      This implementation is generally found in arch/*/kernel/kgdb.c.
      As an example, arch/x86/kernel/kgdb.c contains the specifics to
      implement HW breakpoint as well as the initialization to
      dynamically register and unregister for the trap handlers on
      this architecture.  The arch-specific portion implements:
      <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>contains an arch-specific trap catcher which
      invokes kgdb_handle_exception() to start kgdb about doing its
      work</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>translation to and from gdb specific packet format to pt_regs</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>Registration and unregistration of architecture specific trap hooks</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>Any special exception handling and cleanup</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>NMI exception handling and cleanup</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>(optional) HW breakpoints</para></listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      </para>
      </listitem>
      <listitem><para>gdbstub frontend (aka kgdb)</para>
      <para>The gdbstub is located in kernel/debug/gdbstub.c. It contains:</para>
      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem><para>All the logic to implement the gdb serial protocol</para></listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      </listitem>
      <listitem><para>kdb frontend</para>
      <para>The kdb debugger shell is broken down into a number of
      components.  The kdb core is located in kernel/debug/kdb.  There
      are a number of helper functions in some of the other kernel
      components to make it possible for kdb to examine and report
      information about the kernel without taking locks that could
      cause a kernel deadlock.  The kdb core contains implements the following functionality.</para>
      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem><para>A simple shell</para></listitem>
        <listitem><para>The kdb core command set</para></listitem>
        <listitem><para>A registration API to register additional kdb shell commands.</para>
	<itemizedlist>
        <listitem><para>A good example of a self-contained kdb module
        is the "ftdump" command for dumping the ftrace buffer.  See:
        kernel/trace/trace_kdb.c</para></listitem>
        <listitem><para>For an example of how to dynamically register
        a new kdb command you can build the kdb_hello.ko kernel module
        from samples/kdb/kdb_hello.c.  To build this example you can
        set CONFIG_SAMPLES=y and CONFIG_SAMPLE_KDB=m in your kernel
        config.  Later run "modprobe kdb_hello" and the next time you
        enter the kdb shell, you can run the "hello"
        command.</para></listitem>
	</itemizedlist></listitem>
        <listitem><para>The implementation for kdb_printf() which
        emits messages directly to I/O drivers, bypassing the kernel
        log.</para></listitem>
        <listitem><para>SW / HW breakpoint management for the kdb shell</para></listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      </listitem>
      <listitem><para>kgdb I/O driver</para>
      <para>
      Each kgdb I/O driver has to provide an implementation for the following:
      <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>configuration via built-in or module</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>dynamic configuration and kgdb hook registration calls</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>read and write character interface</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>A cleanup handler for unconfiguring from the kgdb core</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>(optional) Early debug methodology</para></listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      Any given kgdb I/O driver has to operate very closely with the
      hardware and must do it in such a way that does not enable
      interrupts or change other parts of the system context without
      completely restoring them. The kgdb core will repeatedly "poll"
      a kgdb I/O driver for characters when it needs input.  The I/O
      driver is expected to return immediately if there is no data
      available.  Doing so allows for the future possibility to touch
      watchdog hardware in such a way as to have a target system not
      reset when these are enabled.
      </para>
      </listitem>
      </orderedlist>
      </para>
      <para>
      If you are intent on adding kgdb architecture specific support
      for a new architecture, the architecture should define
      <constant>HAVE_ARCH_KGDB</constant> in the architecture specific
      Kconfig file.  This will enable kgdb for the architecture, and
      at that point you must create an architecture specific kgdb
      implementation.
      </para>
      <para>
      There are a few flags which must be set on every architecture in
      their &lt;asm/kgdb.h&gt; file.  These are:
      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>
          NUMREGBYTES: The size in bytes of all of the registers, so
          that we can ensure they will all fit into a packet.
          </para>
        </listitem>
        <listitem>
          <para>
          BUFMAX: The size in bytes of the buffer GDB will read into.
          This must be larger than NUMREGBYTES.
          </para>
        </listitem>
        <listitem>
          <para>
          CACHE_FLUSH_IS_SAFE: Set to 1 if it is always safe to call
          flush_cache_range or flush_icache_range.  On some architectures,
          these functions may not be safe to call on SMP since we keep other
          CPUs in a holding pattern.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      </para>
      <para>
      There are also the following functions for the common backend,
      found in kernel/kgdb.c, that must be supplied by the
      architecture-specific backend unless marked as (optional), in
      which case a default function maybe used if the architecture
      does not need to provide a specific implementation.
      </para>
!Iinclude/linux/kgdb.h
  </sect1>
  <sect1 id="kgdbocDesign">
  <title>kgdboc internals</title>
  <sect2>
  <title>kgdboc and uarts</title>
  <para>
  The kgdboc driver is actually a very thin driver that relies on the
  underlying low level to the hardware driver having "polling hooks"
  to which the tty driver is attached.  In the initial
  implementation of kgdboc the serial_core was changed to expose a
  low level UART hook for doing polled mode reading and writing of a
  single character while in an atomic context.  When kgdb makes an I/O
  request to the debugger, kgdboc invokes a callback in the serial
  core which in turn uses the callback in the UART driver.</para>
  <para>
  When using kgdboc with a UART, the UART driver must implement two callbacks in the <constant>struct uart_ops</constant>. Example from drivers/8250.c:<programlisting>
#ifdef CONFIG_CONSOLE_POLL
	.poll_get_char = serial8250_get_poll_char,
	.poll_put_char = serial8250_put_poll_char,
#endif
  </programlisting>
  Any implementation specifics around creating a polling driver use the
  <constant>#ifdef CONFIG_CONSOLE_POLL</constant>, as shown above.
  Keep in mind that polling hooks have to be implemented in such a way
  that they can be called from an atomic context and have to restore
  the state of the UART chip on return such that the system can return
  to normal when the debugger detaches.  You need to be very careful
  with any kind of lock you consider, because failing here is most likely
  going to mean pressing the reset button.
  </para>
  </sect2>
  <sect2 id="kgdbocKbd">
  <title>kgdboc and keyboards</title>
  <para>The kgdboc driver contains logic to configure communications
  with an attached keyboard.  The keyboard infrastructure is only
  compiled into the kernel when CONFIG_KDB_KEYBOARD=y is set in the
  kernel configuration.</para>
  <para>The core polled keyboard driver driver for PS/2 type keyboards
  is in drivers/char/kdb_keyboard.c.  This driver is hooked into the
  debug core when kgdboc populates the callback in the array
  called <constant>kdb_poll_funcs[]</constant>.  The
  kdb_get_kbd_char() is the top-level function which polls hardware
  for single character input.
  </para>
  </sect2>
  <sect2 id="kgdbocKms">
  <title>kgdboc and kms</title>
  <para>The kgdboc driver contains logic to request the graphics
  display to switch to a text context when you are using
  "kgdboc=kms,kbd", provided that you have a video driver which has a
  frame buffer console and atomic kernel mode setting support.</para>
  <para>
  Every time the kernel
  debugger is entered it calls kgdboc_pre_exp_handler() which in turn
  calls con_debug_enter() in the virtual console layer.  On resuming kernel
  execution, the kernel debugger calls kgdboc_post_exp_handler() which
  in turn calls con_debug_leave().</para>
  <para>Any video driver that wants to be compatible with the kernel
  debugger and the atomic kms callbacks must implement the
  mode_set_base_atomic, fb_debug_enter and fb_debug_leave operations.
  For the fb_debug_enter and fb_debug_leave the option exists to use
  the generic drm fb helper functions or implement something custom for
  the hardware.  The following example shows the initialization of the
  .mode_set_base_atomic operation in
  drivers/gpu/drm/i915/intel_display.c:
  <informalexample>
  <programlisting>
static const struct drm_crtc_helper_funcs intel_helper_funcs = {
[...]
        .mode_set_base_atomic = intel_pipe_set_base_atomic,
[...]
};
  </programlisting>
  </informalexample>
  </para>
  <para>Here is an example of how the i915 driver initializes the fb_debug_enter and fb_debug_leave functions to use the generic drm helpers in
  drivers/gpu/drm/i915/intel_fb.c:
  <informalexample>
  <programlisting>
static struct fb_ops intelfb_ops = {
[...]
       .fb_debug_enter = drm_fb_helper_debug_enter,
       .fb_debug_leave = drm_fb_helper_debug_leave,
[...]
};
  </programlisting>
  </informalexample>
  </para>
  </sect2>
  </sect1>
  </chapter>
  <chapter id="credits">
     <title>Credits</title>
	<para>
		The following people have contributed to this document:
		<orderedlist>
			<listitem><para>Amit Kale<email>amitkale@linsyssoft.com</email></para></listitem>
			<listitem><para>Tom Rini<email>trini@kernel.crashing.org</email></para></listitem>
		</orderedlist>
                In March 2008 this document was completely rewritten by:
		<itemizedlist>
		<listitem><para>Jason Wessel<email>jason.wessel@windriver.com</email></para></listitem>
		</itemizedlist>
                In Jan 2010 this document was updated to include kdb.
		<itemizedlist>
		<listitem><para>Jason Wessel<email>jason.wessel@windriver.com</email></para></listitem>
		</itemizedlist>
	</para>
  </chapter>
</book>